Changes in body fat distribution in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients switching from lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) to atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) were assessed. A prospective comparative study was conducted of 37 patients receiving LPV/r regimens switching to ATV/r with 46 patients continuing with LPV/r. Body composition was assessed with whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Abdominal CT scans were also performed in a subset of patients. Groups were comparable in baseline demographic, clinical, and anthropometric characteristics. After 12 months, peripheral fat did not change significantly, but an increase in trunk fat was observed only in the ATV/r group (0.87 kg, p = 0.021). The percentage of patients with an increase ≥20% in total fat was 37.8% and 15.2% in the ATV/r and LPV/r groups, respectively (p = 0.018). In the ATV/r group, the increase in trunk fat (9.4%) was significantly higher than in peripheral fat (3.7%) (p = 0.007), leading to a significant increase in fat mass ratio (3.76%, p = 0.028), whereas no significant differences were found among LPV/r patients. CT scans showed that abdominal fat increase corresponded to both visceral (28%, p = 0.008) and subcutaneous fat (42%, p = 0.008). These data suggest that switching from LPV/r to ATV/r is associated with increased trunk fat, both subcutaneous and visceral. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.