Purpose: Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and FLT3/internal tandem duplication (FLT3/ITD) have poor prognosis if treated with chemotherapy only. Whether this alteration also affects outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) remains uncertain. Patients and Methods: We analyzed 206 patients who underwent HLA-identical sibling and matched unrelated HSCTs reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation with a diagnosis of AML with normal cytogenetics and data on FLT3/ITD (present: n = 120, 58%; absent: n = 86, 42%). Transplantations were performed in first complete remission (CR) after myeloablative conditioning. Results: Compared with FLT3/ITD-negative patients, FLT3/ITD-positive patients had higher median leukocyte count at diagnosis (59 v 21 × 10 9 /L; P < .001) and shorter interval from CR to transplantation (87 v 99 days; P = .04). Other characteristics were similar in the two groups. At 2 years, relapse incidence (RI; ± standard deviation) was higher (30% ± 5% v 16% ± 5%; P = .006) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) lower (58%±5% v 71%±6%; P=.04) in FLT3/ITD-positive compared with FLT3/ITD-negative patients. In multivariate analyses, FLT3/ITD led to increased RI (hazard ratio [HR], 3.4; 95% CI, 1.46 to 7.94; P = .005), as did older age, female sex, shorter interval between CR and transplantation, and higher number of chemotherapy courses before achieving CR. FLT3/ITD positivity was associated with decreased LFS (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.73; P=.002), along with older age and higher number of chemotherapy courses before achieving CR. Conclusion: FLT3/ITD adversely affected the outcome of HSCT in the same direction it does after chemotherapy; despite this, more than half of the patients harboring this mutation who received transplants were alive and leukemia free at 2 years. To further improve the results, use of FLT3 inhibitors before or after HSCT deserves investigation. © 2012 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.