© 2016 The Author(s). Background: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have an increased risk of developing heart failure (HF). Further, DM is associated with poor prognosis in patients with HF. Our aim was to determine whether DM has any impact on the predictive value of a multi-biomarker panel in patients with HF. Methods: We included 1069 consecutive ambulatory HF patients in the study: age 66.2 ± 12.8 years, 33.5 ± 13.3 left ventricular ejection fraction, 36% diabetic patients. We measured serum concentrations of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT), ST2, galectin-3, high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP), cystatin-C, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and neprilysin and followed patients for 4.9 ± 2.8 years. Primary endpoints were all-cause and cardiovascular death. Results: During follow-up, 534 patients died; 283 died of cardiovascular causes. Diabetic subjects had higher mortality (57.7 vs. 45.6%, p < 0.001). NTproBNP (p = 0.07), hs-TnT (p < 0.001), galectin-3 (p < 0.001), and cystatin-C (p = 0.001) concentrations were higher in diabetic patients, whereas sTfR levels were lower (p = 0.005). There were no interactions between DM and NTproBNP, hs-TnT, galectin-3, hs-CRP, cystatin-C, sTfR, and neprilysin relative to risk prediction for all-cause or cardiovascular death. By contrast, ST2 significantly interacted with DM for all-cause (p = 0.02) and cardiovascular (p = 0.03) death. In diabetic patients, HRs for ST2 were 1.27 (95% CI 1.16-1.40, p < 0.001) and 1.23 (95% CI 1.09-1.39, p = 0.001) for all-cause and cardiovascular death, respectively. In nondiabetic patients, HRs for ST2 were 1.53 (95% CI 1.35-1.73, p < 0.001) and 1.64 (95% CI 1.31-2.05, p < 0.001) for all-cause and cardiovascular death, respectively. The multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that hs-TnT and ST2 were the only markers that were independently associated with both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with HF and diabetes. Moreover, in these patients, the combination of these two markers significantly increased discrimination as assessed by the area under the curve. Conclusions: Biomarkers used in the general population to predict the clinical course of heart failure are also useful in patients with diabetes. In these patients, among all the biomarkers analysed only hs-TnT and ST2 were independently associated with both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.
- Diabetes mellitus
- Heart failure