© 2019 Elsevier Ltd Leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum is a complex infection that can affect both humans and dogs, and present a wide range of clinical signs and clinicopathological abnormalities. The conventional treatment of this disease is challenging due to the fact that complete parasitological cure commonly does not occur. Furthermore, treatment of the disease with the conventionally used drugs has several shortcomings. These include the need for long-term treatment, side effects and the formation of drug resistance. Moreover, it is important to highlight that the host immune responses play a crucial role in the outcome of this infection. For this reason, the use of immunotherapy in clinical leishmaniosis to improve the result of treatment with the conventional anti-leishmanial drugs by enhancing the immune response is imperative. The aim of this review is to provide a comparative overview of the wide range of immunotherapeutical approaches and strategies for the treatment of L. infantum infection in animals focusing on dogs.
- Leishmania infantum