© 2017, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is a medicinal plant that shows biological effects including immunomodulatory activity on human and other mammals but not in fish. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro immunomodulatory effects of R. tomentosa leaf extract and its active compound, rhodomyrtone, on the immune responses, using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) head kidney (HK) macrophages as a model. The tested immune functions included the expression of genes involved in innate immune and inflammatory responses and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Gene expression was evaluated after exposure to 10 μg mL−1 of R. tomentosa and 1 μg mL−1 of rhodomyrtone for 4 and 24 h. R. tomentosa and rhodomyrtone induced changes in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (il1β, il8, and tnfα), anti-inflammatory cytokines (il10 and tgfβ), inducible enzymes (inos, cox2, and arginase), and an antioxidant enzyme (gpx1). Co-exposure of R. tomentosa with LPS resulted in a prominent reduction in the expression of genes related to an inflammatory process (il1β, il8, tnfα, inos, saa, hepcidin, and gpx1), suggesting anti-inflammatory effects. Similarly, co-exposure of rhodomyrtone with LPS led to a downregulation of inflammation-related genes (il1β, inos, saa, and hepcidin). In addition, exposure to both natural plant products caused a reduction in cellular ROS levels by HK macrophages. The present results indicate that R. tomentosa and rhodomyrtone exerted immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory effects on fish macrophages, thus opening up the possibility of using these natural products to further develop immunostimulants for health management in aquaculture.
- Immunomodulatory effects
- Rainbow trout
- Rhodomyrtus tomentosa
Na-Phatthalung, P., Teles, M., Voravuthikunchai, S. P., Tort, L., & Fierro-Castro, C. (2018). Immunomodulatory effects of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaf extract and its derivative compound, rhodomyrtone, on head kidney macrophages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 44, 543-555. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-017-0452-2