Monoclonal antibodies to human stratifying keratin (StK), simple keratin (sk), broad spectrum keratin (bsk) and vimentin were applied to 47 canine mammary tumours (three benign hyperplasia, 26 benign mammary tumours, one malignant mixed tumour, two malignant complex tumours, seven lobular carcinomas, three papillary carcinomas and five squamous cell carcinomas). In benign hyperplasia the SK antibody reacted with acinar and duct epithelial cells; the StK and bsk antibodies reacted strongly with duct epithelial cells and myoepithelium. Neoplastic epithelial cells in the canine mammary tumours expressed mainly keratins of stratified epithelia rather than those of simple epithelia. Myoepithelial cells in complex and mixed tumours can express StK and vimentin. The finding might be helpful in the assessment of complex tumours where stromal reactions may be confused with myoepithelial neoplastic proliferation. Stromal mesenchymal tissues, including precartilage in complex tumours, and clearly differentiated myoepithelial cells always stained positively for vimentin. Occasional carcinoma cells stained positively for vimentin. © 1994.