© 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica Introduction: The incidence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in HIV-infected patients after an episode of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) seems to be lower than with other opportunistic infections. We conducted an observational study in order to determine the incidence, clinical characteristics and outcome of patients diagnosed with PJP-related IRIS. Methods: We conducted an observational study of HIV patients diagnosed with PJP-related IRIS from January 2000 to November 2015. We analyzed epidemiological and clinical characteristics as well as laboratory findings. We also carried out a systematic review of published cases. Results: Six cases of IRIS out of 123 (4.9%) HIV-infected patients with PJP who started ART were diagnosed. All six cases were men with a median age of 34 (IQR: 8) years. The six patients developed paradoxical IRIS. Subjects younger than 40 years old (p = 0.084) and with an HIV-RNA viral load >100 000 copies/ml (p = 0.081) at diagnosis showed a tendency to develop IRIS. Thirty-seven published cases of PJP-related IRIS were identified. Although 51% of cases involved respiratory failure, no deaths were reported. Conclusions: PJP-related IRIS is rare condition compared to other opportunistic infections. It can lead to a severe respiratory failure in a significant proportion of cases, although no deaths have been reported.
- Human immunodeficiency virus
- Immune reconstitution
- Pneumocystis jirovecii
Roade Tato, L., Burgos Cibrian, J., Curran Fábregas, A., Navarro Mercadé, J., Willekens, R., Martín Gómez, M. T., Ribera Pascuet, E., & Falcó Ferrer, V. (2018). Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-infected patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica, 36, 621-626. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eimc.2017.11.002