IL-6 deficiency leads to reduced metallothionein-I+II expression and increased oxidative stress in the brain stem after 6-aminonicotinamide treatment

M. Penkowa, J. Hidalgo

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    47 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    We examined the effects of interleukin-6 (IL-6) deficiency on brain inflammation and the accompanying bone marrow (BM) leukopoiesis and spleen immune reaction after systemic administration of a niacin antagonist, 6- aminonicotinamide (6-AN), which causes both astroglial degeneration/cell death in brain stem gray matter areas and BM toxicity. In both normal and genetically IL-6-deficient mice (IL-6 knockout (IL-6KO) mice), the extent of astroglial degeneration/cell death in the brain stem was similar as determined from disappearance of GFAP immunoreactivity. In 6-AN-injected normal mice reactive astrocytosis encircled gray matter areas containing astroglial degeneration/cell death, which were infiltrated by several macrophages and some T-lymphocytes. Reactive astrocytes and a few macrophages increased significantly the antioxidants metallothionein-I+II (MT-I+II) and moderately the MT-III isoform. In 6-AN-injected IL-6KO mice reactive astrocytosis and recruitment of macrophages and T-lymphocytes were clearly reduced, as were BM leukopoiesis and spleen immune reaction. Expression of MT-I+II was significantly reduced while MT-III was increased. Oxidative stress, as determined by measuring nitrated tyrosine and malondialdehyde, was increased by 6-AN to a greater extent in IL-6KO mice. The blood-brain barrier to albumin was only disrupted in 6-AN-injected normal mice, which likely is due to the substantial migration of blood-derived inflammatory cells into the CNS. The present results demonstrate that inflammation in CNS is clearly reduced during IL-6 deficiency and this effect is likely due to significant inhibition of BM leukopoiesis. We also show that IL-6 deficiency reduces the levels of neuroprotective antioxidants MT-I+II followed by an increased oxidative stress during CNS inflammation. (C) 2000 Academic Press.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)72-84
    JournalExperimental Neurology
    Volume163
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2000

    Keywords

    • 6-aminonicotinamide (6-AN)
    • IL-6
    • Inflammation
    • Metallothioneins
    • Oxidative stress

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