Human MAMLD1 gene variations seem not sufficient to explain a 46,XY DSD phenotype

Núria Camats, Mónica Fernández-Cancio, Laura Audí, Primus E. Mullis, Francisca Moreno, Isabel González Casado, Juan Pedro López-Siguero, Raquel Corripio, José Antonio Bermúdez De La Vega, José Antonio Blanco, Christa E. Flück

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11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

© 2015 Camats et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. MAMLD1 is thought to cause disordered sex development in 46,XY patients. But its role is controversial because some MAMLD1 variants are also detected in normal individuals, several MAMLD1 mutations have wild-type activity in functional tests, and the male Mamld1-knockout mouse has normal genitalia and reproduction. Our aim was to search for MAMLD1 variations in 108 46,XY patients with disordered sex development, and to test them functionally.We detected MAMDL1 variations and compared SNP frequencies in controls and patients. We tested MAMLD1 transcriptional activity on promoters involved in sex development and assessed the effect of MAMLD1 on androgen production. MAMLD1 expression in normal steroid-producing tissues and mutant MAMLD1 protein expression were also assessed. Nine MAMLD1 mutations (7 novel) were characterized. In vitro, most MAMLD1 variants acted similarly to wild type. Only the L210X mutation showed loss of function in all tests. We detected no effect of wild-type or MAMLD1 variants on CYP17A1 enzyme activity in our cell experiments, and Western blots revealed no significant differences for MAMLD1 protein expression. MAMLD1 was expressed in human adult testes and adrenals. In conclusion, our data support the notion that MAMLD1 sequence variations may not suffice to explain the phenotype in carriers and that MAMLD1 may also have a role in adult life.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0142831
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume10
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2015

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