Hormonal responses to stress | Impact of Stress in Health and Reproduction

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7 Citations (Scopus)


Since the stress reaction involves expending energy to cope with the challenge of stressors, the reproductive and the immune systems may modify their performance as both the generation of reproductive structures and the defense against pathogens are highly energy-demanding processes. Stressors impact reproduction by altering the efficiency of hormones and the reproductive behavior, with consequences to the progeny. Regarding the immune system, stressors affect the neuro-immune-endocrine network, especially head kidney, which is a key organ in the organization of both immune and endocrine responses. The stress hormones, particularly cortisol, may induce either stimulatory or suppressive actions depending on the stressor intensity and time, and the species concerned. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Fish Physiology
Place of PublicationWaltham (US)
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2011

Publication series

NameFish Physiology


  • Cytokines
  • Disease resistance
  • Fish
  • Gonads
  • Head kidney
  • Immune suppression
  • Immune system
  • Neuroendocrine axis
  • Progeny
  • Reproduction
  • Stress
  • Stressors


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