Homotopy composition of cospans

Joachim Kock, David I. Spivak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


© 2017 World Scientific Publishing Company. It is well known that the category of finite sets and cospans, composed by pushout, contains the universal special commutative Frobenius algebra. In this paper, we observe that the same construction yields also general commutative Frobenius algebras, if just the pushouts are changed to homotopy pushouts.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1650047
JournalCommunications in Contemporary Mathematics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2017


  • Cospan
  • Frobenius algebra
  • homotopy pushout


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