HIV and aging, biological mechanisms, and therapies: What do we know?

Tomás M. Grosso, José Alcamí, José R. Arribas, Marta Martín, Irini Sereti, Philip Tarr, Pedro Cahn, Bonaventura Clotet, Omar Sued, Eugenia Negredo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Aging, a time-dependent loss of physiological function, and its drivers are turning into a significant topic of research as the population’s mean age increases. Epigenetic alterations, telomere shortening or dysfunction, mitogenic stress, oxidative stress, or accumulation of DNA damage can drive the cell to senescence: a permanent cell cycle arrest sometimes associated with a secretory phenotype and inflammatory consequences in the surrounding tissue. The amount of senescent cells grows over time in older organisms and may induce tissue inflammation and threaten overall tissue homeostasis, favoring aging. Senolytic and senomorphic therapeutics are an emerging approach to eliminate senescent cells or to block their secretory phenotypes respectively. Given that people living with HIV suffer non-AIDS comorbidities in a higher prevalence than the general population, aging is accentuated among them. Inflammation biomarkers may be helpful to assess prognosis or act as surrogate endpoints for studies of strategies focused on reversal of HIV-associated accelerated aging. This review summarizes the latest findings in aging and its major drivers, under the light of HIV infection. Since the number of older PLWH is currently rising, it will be of great importance to address and treat their age-related conditions, as well as to better decipher their biological mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)79-86
Number of pages8
JournalAIDS Reviews
Volume24
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022

Keywords

  • Aging
  • Cellular senescence
  • Genomic instability
  • HIV infection
  • Senolytics
  • Telomeres

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