High focal depth imaging of small structures

Rosemarie Hild, María J. Yzuel, Juan C. Escalera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


The image intensity of small structures is considered under the influence of nonuniform pupils, which are apodizing and/or hyperresolving in the radial or axial direction. The predicted features of the aerial images of these structures are explained with the discussion of the 3D response functions and of the apparent transfer function. Differences occur between small lines and squares. In contrast to the 3D point response the 3D response function of the line is influenced by the coherence parameter.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)195-214
JournalMicroelectronic Engineering
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1997


  • Axial/lateral apodizing and hyperresolving filters
  • Imaging of small structures
  • Nonuniform pupils
  • Optical lithography


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