Hexaminolevulinate-Guided Fluorescence Cystoscopy in the Diagnosis and Follow-Up of Patients with Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Review of the Evidence and Recommendations

J. Alfred Witjes, Juan Palou Redorta, Didier Jacqmin, Frank Sofras, Per Uno Malmström, Claus Riedl, Dieter Jocham, Giario Conti, Francesco Montorsi, Harm C. Arentsen, Dirk Zaak, A. Hugh Mostafid, Marko Babjuk

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

104 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Context: Compared with standard white-light cystoscopy, photodynamic diagnosis with blue light and the photosensitiser hexaminolevulinate has been shown to improve the visualisation of bladder tumours, reduce residual tumour rates by at least 20%, and improve recurrence-free survival. There is currently no overall European consensus outlining specifically where hexaminolevulinate is or is not indicated. Objective: Our aim was to define specific indications for hexaminolevulinate-guided fluorescence cystoscopy in the diagnosis and management of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Evidence acquisition: A European expert panel was convened to review the evidence for hexaminolevulinate-guided fluorescence cystoscopy in the diagnosis and management of NMIBC (identified through a PubMed MESH search) and available guidelines from across Europe. On the basis of this information and drawing on the extensive clinical experience of the panel, specific indications for the technique were then identified through discussion. Evidence synthesis: The panel recommends that hexaminolevulinate-guided fluorescence cystoscopy be used to aid diagnosis at initial transurethral resection following suspicion of bladder cancer and in patients with positive urine cytology but negative white-light cystoscopy for the assessment of tumour recurrences in patients not previously assessed with hexaminolevulinate, in the initial follow-up of patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) or multifocal tumours, and as a teaching tool. The panel does not currently recommend the use of hexaminolevulinate-guided fluorescence cystoscopy in patients for whom cystectomy is indicated or for use in the outpatient setting with flexible cystoscopy. Conclusions: Evidence is available to support the use of hexaminolevulinate-guided fluorescence cystoscopy in a range of indications, as endorsed by an expert panel. © 2010 European Association of Urology.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)607-614
JournalEuropean Urology
Volume57
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2010

Keywords

  • Carcinoma in situ
  • CIS detection
  • Hexaminolevulinate
  • Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer
  • PDD
  • Photodynamic diagnosis
  • Recurrence

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