© 2017 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA This paper discusses the current state of research on harvesting technologies of the first farming communities of the central and western Mediterranean area between ca. 6000–5900 cal BC and 4800–4700 cal BC. New data obtained from the analysis of almost 40 sites from the Italian Peninsula is compared with data previously collected from the Iberian Peninsula and southern France. Results indicate the existence of at least two different harvesting traditions, one characterized by curved sickles used for harvesting at a low or middle height; the other characterized by reaping knives with parallel hafted blades, probably mainly used for ear harvesting. Processes of innovation and change have been highlighted, suggesting that harvesting techniques changed and evolved through time. Besides, the mechanism and pace of diffusion of curved sickles have been explored, too.