GRP78 at the centre of the stage in cancer and neuroprotection

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Abstract

The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein GRP78, also known as BiP and HSP5a, is a multifunctional protein with activities far beyond its well-known role in the unfolded protein response (UPR) which is activated after endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the cells. Most of these newly discovered activities depend on its position within the cell. GRP78 is located mainly in the ER, but it has also been observed in the cytoplasm, the mitochondria, the nucleus, the plasma membrane, and secreted, although it is dedicated mostly to engage endogenous cytoprotective processes. Hence, GRP78 may control either UPR and macroautophagy or may activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pro-survival pathways. GRP78 influences how tumor cells survive, proliferate, and develop chemoresistance. In neurodegeneration, endogenous mechanisms of neuroprotection are frequently insufficient or dysregulated. Lessons from tumor biology may give us clues about how boosting endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms in age-related neurodegeneration. Herein, the functions of GRP78 are revealed at the center of the stage of apparently opposite sites of the same coin regarding cytoprotection: neurodegeneration and cancer. The goal is to give a comprehensive and critical review that may serve to guide future experiments to identify interventions that will enhance neuroprotection. The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein GRP78, also known as BiP and HSP5a, is a multifunctional protein with activities far beyond its well-known role in the unfolded protein response (UPR) which is activated after endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the cells. Most of these newly discovered activities depend on its position within the cell. GRP78 is located mainly in the ER, but it has also been observed in the cytoplasm, the mitochondria, the nucleus, the plasma membrane, and secreted, although it is dedicated mostly to engage endogenous cytoprotective processes. Hence, GRP78 may control either UPR and macroautophagy or may activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pro-survival pathways. GRP78 influences how tumor cells survive, proliferate, and develop chemoresistance. In neurodegeneration, endogenous mechanisms of neuroprotection are frequently insufficient or dysregulated. Lessons from tumor biology may give us clues about how boosting endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms in age-related neurodegeneration. Herein, the functions of GRP78 are revealed at the center of the stage of apparently opposite sites of the same coin regarding cytoprotection: neurodegeneration and cancer. The goal is to give a comprehensive and critical review that may serve to guide future experiments to identify interventions that will enhance neuroprotection.
Original languageEnglish
Article number177
JournalFrontiers in Neuroscience
Volume11
Issue numberAPR
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Apr 2017

Keywords

  • Autophagy
  • BiP
  • ER stress
  • ERAD
  • Endogenous mechanisms
  • GRP78
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Neuroprotection

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