Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W entanglement witnesses for the noninteracting Fermi gas

Hessam Habibian, John W. Clark, Naeimeh Behbood, Kurt Hingerl

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    Abstract

    The existence and nature of tripartite entanglement of a noninteracting Fermi gas (NIFG) is investigated. Three classes of parametrized entanglement witnesses (EWs) are introduced with the aim of detecting genuine tripartite entanglement in the three-body reduced density matrix and discriminating between the presence of the two types of genuine tripartite entanglement, W\B and GHZ\W (the convex set of B states is comprised of mixed states of product and biseparable states; that of W states is comprised of mixed states of B states and W-type pure entangled states; and the GHZ (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger) set contains generic mixtures of any kind for a tripartite system). By choosing appropriate EW operators, the problem of finding GHZ and W EWs is reduced to linear programming. Specifically, we devise W EWs based on a spin-chain model with periodic boundary conditions, and we construct a class of parametrized GHZ EWs by linearly combining projection operators corresponding to all the different state-vector types arising for a three-fermion system. A third class of EWs is provided by a GHZ stabilizer operator capable of distinguishing W\B from GHZ\B entanglement, which is not possible with W EWs. Implementing these classes of EWs, it is found that all states containing genuine tripartite entanglement are of W type, and hence states containing GHZ\W genuine tripartite entanglement do not arise. Some genuine tripartite entangled states that have a positive partial transpose (PPT) with respect to some bipartition are detected. Finally, it is demonstrated that a NIFG does not exhibit "pure" W\B genuine tripartite entanglement: three-party entanglement without any separable or biseparable admixture does not occur. © 2010 The American Physical Society.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number032302
    JournalPhysical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics
    Volume81
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 3 Mar 2010

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