Glycoprotein hormone receptors [thyrotropin (TSHr), luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin (LH/CGr), follicle stimulating hormone (FSHr)] are rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors with a large extracellular N-terminal portion responsible for hormone recognition and binding. In structural models, this ectodomain is composed of two cysteine clusters flanking nine leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). The LRRs form a succession of β-strands and α-helices organized into a horseshoe-shaped structure. It has been proposed that glycoprotein hormones interact with residues of the β-strands making the concave surface of the horseshoe. Gain-of-function homology scanning of the β-strands of glycoprotein hormone receptors allowed identification of the critical residues responsible for the specificity towards human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Substitution of eight or two residues of the LH/CGr into the TSHr or FSHr, respectively, resulted in constructs displaying almost the same affinity and sensitivity for hCG as wild-type LH/CGr. Molecular dynamics simulations and additional site-directed mutagenesis provided a structural rationale for the evolution of binding specificity in this duplicated gene family.
|Publication status||Published - 2 Jun 2003|
- Duplicated genes
- G-protein coupled receptors
- Glycoprotein hormone receptors
- Leucine-rich repeats
- Molecular dynamics