© 2014 Fernández-Novell et al. We examined glucose and fructose effects on serine phosphorylation levels of a range of proteins in rat liver and muscle cells. For this, healthy adult rats were subjected to either oral glucose or fructose loads. A mini-array system was utilized to determine serine phosphorylation levels of liver and skeletal muscle proteins. A glucose oral load of 125 mg/100 g body weight (G 1/2) did not induce changes in phosphorylated serines of the proteins studied. Loading with 250 mg/100 g body weight of fructose (Fr), which induced similar glycemia levels as G 1/2, significantly increased serine phosphorylation of liver cyclin D3, PI3 kinase/p85, ERK-2, PTP2 and clusterin. The G 1/2 increased serine levels of the skeletal muscle proteins cyclin H, Cdk2, IRAK, total PKC, PTP1B, c-Raf 1, Ras and the β-subunit of the insulin receptor. The Fr induced a significant increase only in muscle serine phosphorylation of PI3 kinase/p85. The incubation of isolated rat hepatocytes with 10 mM glucose for 5 min significantly increased serine phosphorylation of 31 proteins. In contrast, incubation with 10 mM fructose produced less intense effects. Incubation with 10 mM glucose plus 75 μM fructose counteracted the effects of the incubation with glucose alone, except those on Raf-1 and Ras. Less marked effects were detected in cultured muscle cells incubated with 10 mM glucose or 10 mM glucose plus 75 μM fructose. Our results suggest that glucose and fructose act as specific functional modulators through a general mechanism that involves liver-generated signals, like micromolar fructosemia, which would inform peripheral tissues of the presence of either glucose- or fructose-derived metabolites.