We study two sufficient conditions that imply global injectivity for a C1 map X: ℝ2 → ℝ2 such that its Jacobian at any point of ℝ2 is not zero. One is based on the notion of half-Reeb component and the other on the Palais-Smale condition. We improve the first condition using the notion of inseparable leaves. We provide a new proof of the sufficiency of the second condition. We prove that both conditions are not equivalent, more precisely we show that the Palais-Smale condition implies the nonexistence of inseparable leaves, but the converse is not true. Finally, we show that the Palais-Smale condition it is not a necessary condition for the global injectivity of the map X. © Canadian Mathematical Society 2007.
Gutierrez, C., Jarque, X., Llibre, J., & Teixeira, M. A. (2007). Global injectivity of C1 maps of the real plane, inseparable leaves and the palais-smale condition. Canadian Mathematical Bulletin, 50, 377-389. https://doi.org/10.4153/CMB-2007-036-0