Archaeological excavations at Tel Akko, northern Israel, located some 1.5 km east of the present ancient city, have revealed imported artefacts and evidence for maritime trade dating from the early part of the 2nd millennium BC onwards (Dothan, 1993). These findings strongly support the existence of a harbour (or anchorage) at the site, although its exact location and associated facilities have yet to be elucidated. Sedimentological and palaeontological analyses, together with 14C dates of cores drilled around Tel Akko, provide new palaeo-environmental information to help to reconstruct shoreline changes during the last ca. 4000 years. First, we propose that the southern facade of the tell constituted the harbour environment, characterised by marine environments until ca. 2800 years BP; the site was protected by a natural rocky breakwater and a sandbar which were silted-up and transformed into a fresh-water marsh. This environment might have been used as an anchorage by the tell's inhabitants before the early-1st millennium BC. Secondly, it seems that the eastern side of the tell was flanked by a sandy coast, that had prograded, offering an open anchorage until the Late Persian/Hellenistic period in the southwestern area of the tell. These results are being cross-checked by geophysical surveys, rescue archaeology and should be validated by further archaeological excavations.
- Ancient harbour