The purpose of this study was to evaluate the GenoType MTBDRsl assay (Hain Lifescience GmbH, Nehren, Germany) for its ability to detect resistance to fluoroquinolones (FLQ), injectable second-line antibiotics [kanamycin (KM) and capreomycin (CM)], and ethambutol (EMB) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical strains and directly in clinical samples. A total of 34 clinical strains were characterized with the Bactec 460 TB system. Fifty-four clinical samples from 16 patients (5 were smear negative and 49 were smear positive) were also tested directly. The corresponding isolates of the clinical specimens were also analyzed with the Bactec 460TB. When there was a discrepancy between assays, pyrosequencing was performed. The overall rates of concordance of the MTBDRsl and the Bactec 460TB for the detection of FLQ, KM/CM, and EMB susceptibility in clinical strains were 72.4% (21/29), 88.8% (24/27), and 67.6% (23/34), whereas for clinical samples, rates were 86.5% (45/52), 92.3% (48/52), and 56% (28/50), respectively. In conclusion, the GenoType MTBDRsl assay may be a useful tool for making early decisions regarding KM/CM susceptibility and to a lesser extent regarding FLQ and EMB susceptibility. The test is able to detect mutations in both clinical strains and samples with a short turnaround time. However, for correct management of patients with extensively drugresistant tuberculosis, results must be confirmed by a phenotypical method. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.