Genotoxicity modulation by cadmium treatment: Studies in the Drosophila wing spot test

Mostapha Rizki, Elk Kossatz, Amadeu Creus, Ricardo Marcos

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11 Citations (Scopus)


The genotoxic activity of cadmium chloride (CC) has been evaluated in the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. In addition, its possible modulating effect on the genotoxicity of two known mutagenic agents, potassium dichromate (PDC) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), was investigated. Three different types of combined treatments of CC with the two genotoxins were performed: pretreatment, cotreatment, and posttreatment. The SMART assay is based on the principle that loss of heterozygosity for the recessive markers, multiple wing hairs (mwh) and flare-3 (flr3), leads to the formation of mutant clones in the imaginal disks of larvae, which are expressed as mutant spots on the wings of adult flies. Thus, after adult emergence, the wings of the adult flies were scored for the presence of single and/or twin spots. Our results show that CC alone was not effective in increasing the frequency of any of the three categories of spots (small, large, and twin). In the cotreatment experiments, CC increased the genotoxicity of PDC but it decreased the genotoxicity of EMS. No effects of CC were observed in the pretreatment or posttreatment experiments; however, only low concentrations of CC, PDC, and EMS were tested in the pretreatment assays due to the high toxicity of the treatment. Although our results with PDC are consistent with the hypothesis that cadmium can interfere with repair mechanisms, the EMS data suggest that other modulating mechanisms are also involved in the genotoxicity of this metal. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)196-203
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2004


  • Cadmium chloride
  • Ethyl methanesulfonate
  • Genotoxicity
  • Modulating effects
  • Potassium dichromate
  • Wing spot test


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