Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have many affected physiological pathways. Variations in the genes regulating these pathways might affect the incidence and predisposition to this disease. A total of 722 Spanish adults, including 548 patients and 174 controls, were genotyped to better understand the effects of genetic risk loci on the susceptibility to CKD. We analyzed 38 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes associated with the inflammatory response (interleukins IL-1A, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, ICAM-1), fibrogenesis (TGFB1), homocysteine synthesis (MTHFR), DNA repair (OGG1, MUTYH, XRCC1, ERCC2, ERCC4), renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (CYP11B2, AGT), phase-II metabolism (GSTP1, GSTO1, GSTO2), antioxidant capacity (SOD1, SOD2, CAT, GPX1, GPX3, GPX4), and some other genes previously reported to be associated with CKD (GLO1, SLC7A9, SHROOM3, UMOD, VEGFA, MGP, KL). The results showed associations of GPX1, GSTO1, GSTO2, UMOD, and MGP with CKD. Additionally, associations with CKD related pathologies, such as hypertension (GPX4, CYP11B2, ERCC4), cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer predisposition (ERCC2) were also observed. Different genes showed association with biochemical parameters characteristic for CKD, such as creatinine (GPX1, GSTO1, GSTO2, KL, MGP), glomerular filtration rate (GPX1, GSTO1, KL, ICAM-1, MGP), hemoglobin (ERCC2, SHROOM3), resistance index erythropoietin (SOD2, VEGFA, MTHFR, KL), albumin (SOD1, GSTO2, ERCC2, SOD2), phosphorus (IL-4, ERCC4 SOD1, GPX4, GPX1), parathyroid hormone (IL-1A, IL-6, SHROOM3, UMOD, ICAM-1), C-reactive protein (SOD2, TGFB1,GSTP1, XRCC1), and ferritin (SOD2, GSTP1, SLC7A9, GPX4). To our knowledge, this is the second comprehensive study carried out in Spanish patients linking genetic polymorphisms and CKD.