Polymorphism in the goat kappa casein gene was studied using the base excision sequence scanning (BESS) method and sequencing. Seven polymorphic sites, corresponding to single nucleotide transversions were detected. Three of these were silent mutations while the other four produced amino acid substitutions. The association between these polymorphic sites was investigated, which resulted in the identification of three goat kappa casein alleles, designated A, B, and C. Protocols for rapid genotyping of the C variant were developed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism using Alw44I and BseNI restriction endonucleases. The occurrence of this allele was found to be very low in Spanish breeds but more frequent in the French Saanen goat. Further studies among different goat populations are necessary to establish the distribution of these alleles and their effects on the quality and functional properties of milk.
- Base excision sequence scanning
- Genetic polymorphism
- Goats' milk