The aim of this study was to perform an initial characterization of milk quality and to determine genetic polymorphism at the CSN1S1 and CSN1S2 locus in two herds of local dairy goats (Hungarian Milking). The fat, protein and lactose level of milk samples in Hungarian Milking Goats were compared to other local goat breeds worldwide and it was concluded that the mean milk production of the Hungarian goats should be improved. The presence of the A, B, C + D, E, F and O alleles of CSN1S1 locus and A + B + C + E, D, F and O alleles of CSN1S2 locus were genotyped for by PCR-AS and PCR-RFLP methods in 103 goats. The strong B allele of CSN1S1 is more frequent in the local Hungarian Milking than in the imported Alpine and Saanen goats. The relatively high incidence of the O allele of CSN1S2 gene is also characteristic for the Hungarian Milking Goats and those special allele distribution patterns could be used to develop selection strategies to breed specialised lines of Hungarian local breeds. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.