© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Beer and wine contains the simple phenol tyrosol (TYR) which is endogenously converted into hydroxytyrosol (HT), one of the strongest dietary antioxidants, by CYP2A6 and CYP2D6 polymorphic enzymes. We investigated in humans the rate of this bioconversion after beer and red wine (RW) intake. In a single blind, randomized, crossover, controlled clinical trial (n = 20 healthy subjects), we evaluated TYR absorption and biotransformation into HT following a single dose of (i) RW, (ii) Indian pale ale beer (IPA), (iii) blonde beer, and (iv) non-alcoholic beer (free). Individuals were genotyped for CYP2A6 and CYP2D6, and a polygenic activity score (PAS) was derived. RW triggered the highest increase in total TYR recovered, followed by IPA, blonde, and free beers. Although the HT content in beer was minimal, an increase in HT production was observed in all beers following TYR in a dose-response manner, confirming TYR to HT biotransformation. Sex differences were identified in the rate of the conversion following RW. PAS scores correlated linearly with the recoveries of HT (HT:TYR ratios) after RW intake. In conclusion, after beer and RWconsumption, TYR is absorbed and endogenously biotransformed into HT. This mechanism could be modulated by sex, genetics, and matrix components.
- Polygenic activity score