Generalised pyogranulomatous disease and hyperviscosity syndrome associated with a presumed monoclonal gammopathy was diagnosed in a three-year-old intact female Pomeranian. The Bartonella henselae antibody titer was 1:64 and Bartonella species DNA was amplified from the splenic tissue. Monoclonal gammopathies in dogs are typically associated with plasma cell and lymphoid dyscrasias and other inflammatory or infectious diseases such as ehrlichiosis and leishmaniosis. Based on this case report, infection with Bartonella species should also be added to the differential diagnoses for gammopathy in dogs. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of molecular evidence of Bartonella species infection in a sick dog in Spain. © 2011 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.