Fundamentals in selecting input and output variables for composting process automatic controllers

Efstathios K. Papadimitriou, Werner Bidlingmaier, Teresa Gea

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    3 Citations (Scopus)


    This paper provides a critical analysis of the fundamental principles involved in the selection of input and output variables for automatic controllers of composting processes. Research results and technological advancements make available a number of parameters which may be used by a composting process controller. Parameters based on ventilation have been identified as the most appropriate controller output variables. On-line monitoring of odour generation potential and pathogen destruction has not become feasible, although recent advances indicate potential for electronic noses and biosensors. On-line measurement of reaction rate heavily depends on the suitability of microbial respirometric methods. Water content of the material being composted may be useful in on-line evaluation of reaction rate if relationships between water loss rate and respiration rate are adequately described. Developments in artificial intelligence offer, however, new avenues regarding real-time estimation of reaction rates. In general, the first experiences from application of artificial intelligence on composting process control indicate potential for substantial utility. © Taylor & Francis.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)6-21
    JournalCompost Science and Utilization
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2010


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