Full security of quantum key distribution from no-signaling constraints

Lluís Masanes, Renato Renner, Matthias Christandl, Andreas Winter, Jonathan Barrett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


We analyze a cryptographic protocol for generating a distributed secret key from correlations that violate a Bell inequality by a sufficient amount, and prove its security against eavesdroppers, constrained only by the assumption that any information accessible to them must be compatible with the non-signaling principle. The claim holds with respect to the state-of-the-art security definition used in cryptography, known as universally-composable security. The non-signaling assumption only refers to the statistics of measurement outcomes depending on the choices of measurements; hence security is independent of the internal workings of the devices - they do not even need to follow the laws of quantum theory. This is relevant for practice as a correct and complete modeling of realistic devices is generally impossible. The techniques developed are general and can be applied to other Bell inequality-based protocols. In particular, we provide a scheme for estimating Bell-inequality violations when the samples are not independent and identically distributed. © 2014 IEEE.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6846344
Pages (from-to)4973-4986
JournalIEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014


  • Quantum mechanics
  • cryptographic protocols
  • cryptography
  • quantum entanglement
  • random number generation


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