Frontotemporal dementia and its subtypes: A genome-wide association study

Raffaele Ferrari, Dena G. Hernandez, Michael A. Nalls, Jonathan D. Rohrer, Adaikalavan Ramasamy, John B.J. Kwok, Carol Dobson-Stone, Brooks S. Brooks William S., Peter R. Schofield, Glenda M. Halliday, John R. Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Lauren Bartley, Elizabeth Thompson, Eric Haan, Isabel Hernández, Agustín Ruiz, Mercè Boada, Barbara Borroni, Alessandro PadovaniCarlos Cruchaga, Nigel J. Cairns, Luisa Benussi, Giuliano Binetti, Roberta Ghidoni, Gianluigi Forloni, Daniela Galimberti, Chiara Fenoglio, Maria Serpente, Elio Scarpini, Jordi Clarimón, Alberto Lleó, Rafael Blesa, Maria Landqvist Waldö, Karin Nilsson, Christer Nilsson, Ian R.A. Mackenzie, Ging Yuek R. Hsiung, David M.A. Mann, Jordan Grafman, Christopher M. Morris, Johannes Attems, Timothy D. Griffiths, Ian G. McKeith, Alan J. Thomas, P. Pietrini, Edward D. Huey, Eric M. Wassermann, Atik Baborie, Evelyn Jaros, Michael C. Tierney, Pau Pastor, Cristina Razquin, Sara Ortega-Cubero, Elena Alonso, Robert Perneczky, Janine Diehl-Schmid, Panagiotis Alexopoulos, Alexander Kurz, Innocenzo Rainero, Elisa Rubino, Lorenzo Pinessi, Ekaterina Rogaeva, Peter St George-Hyslop, Giacomina Rossi, Fabrizio Tagliavini, Giorgio Giaccone, James B. Rowe, Johannes C.M. Schlachetzki, James Uphill, John Collinge, Simon Mead, Adrian Danek, Vivianna M. Van Deerlin, Murray Grossman, John Q. Trojanowski, Julie Van der Zee, William Deschamps, Tim Van Langenhove, Marc Cruts, Christine Van Broeckhoven, Stefano F. Cappa, Isabelle Le Ber, Didier Hannequin, Véronique Golfier, Martine Vercelletto, Alexis Brice, Benedetta Nacmias, Sandro Sorbi, Silvia Bagnoli, Irene Piaceri, Jørgen E. Nielsen, Lena E. Hjermind, Matthias Riemenschneider, Manuel Mayhaus, Bernd Ibach, Gilles Gasparoni, Sabrina Pichler, Wei Gu, Martin N. Rossor

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168 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a complex disorder characterised by a broad range of clinical manifestations, differential pathological signatures, and genetic variability. Mutations in three genes-MAPT, GRN, and C9orf72-have been associated with FTD. We sought to identify novel genetic risk loci associated with the disorder. Methods: We did a two-stage genome-wide association study on clinical FTD, analysing samples from 3526 patients with FTD and 9402 healthy controls. To reduce genetic heterogeneity, all participants were of European ancestry. In the discovery phase (samples from 2154 patients with FTD and 4308 controls), we did separate association analyses for each FTD subtype (behavioural variant FTD, semantic dementia, progressive non-fluent aphasia, and FTD overlapping with motor neuron disease [FTD-MND]), followed by a meta-analysis of the entire dataset. We carried forward replication of the novel suggestive loci in an independent sample series (samples from 1372 patients and 5094 controls) and then did joint phase and brain expression and methylation quantitative trait loci analyses for the associated (p<5 × 10-8) single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Findings: We identified novel associations exceeding the genome-wide significance threshold (p<5 × 10-8). Combined (joint) analyses of discovery and replication phases showed genome-wide significant association at 6p21.3, HLA locus (immune system), for rs9268877 (p=1·05 × 10-8; odds ratio=1·204 [95% CI 1·11-1·30]), rs9268856 (p=5·51 × 10-9; 0·809 [0·76-0·86]) and rs1980493 (p value=1·57 × 10-8, 0·775 [0·69-0·86]) in the entire cohort. We also identified a potential novel locus at 11q14, encompassing RAB38/CTSC (the transcripts of which are related to lysosomal biology), for the behavioural FTD subtype for which joint analyses showed suggestive association for rs302668 (p=2·44 × 10-7; 0·814 [0·71-0·92]). Analysis of expression and methylation quantitative trait loci data suggested that these loci might affect expression and methylation in cis. Interpretation: Our findings suggest that immune system processes (link to 6p21.3) and possibly lysosomal and autophagy pathways (link to 11q14) are potentially involved in FTD. Our findings need to be replicated to better define the association of the newly identified loci with disease and to shed light on the pathomechanisms contributing to FTD. Funding: The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and National Institute on Aging, the Wellcome/MRC Centre on Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's Research UK, and Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)686-699
JournalThe Lancet Neurology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014


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