Free Testosterone During Androgen Deprivation Therapy Predicts Castration-Resistant Progression Better Than Total Testosterone

Lucas Regis, Jacques Planas, Joan Carles, Xavier Maldonado, Inma Comas, Roser Ferrer, Juan Morote

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. BACKGROUND: The optimal degree of testosterone suppression in patients with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy remains in question. Furthermore, serum free testosterone, which is the active form of testosterone, seems to correlate with intraprostatic testosterone. Here we compared free and total serum testosterone as predictors of survival free of castration resistance. METHODS: Total testosterone (chemiluminescent assay, lower sensitivity 10 ng/dl) and free testosterone (analogue-ligand radioimmunoassay, lower sensitivity 0.05 pg/ml) were determined at 6 months of LHRH agonist treatment in a prospective cohort of 126 patients with prostate cancer. During a mean follow-up of 67 months (9–120), 75 (59.5%) events of castration-resistant progression were identified. Multivariate analysis and survival analysis according to total testosterone cutoffs of 50, 32, and 20 ng/dl, and free testosterone cutoffs of 1.7, 1.1, and 0.7 pg/ml were performed. RESULTS: Metastatic spread was the most powerful predictor of castration resistance, HR: 2.09 (95%CI: 1.18–3.72), P = 0.012. Gleason score, baseline PSA and PSA at 6 months were also independents predictors, but not free and total testosterone. Stratified analysis was conducted on the basis of the status of metastatic diseases and free testosterone was found to be an independent predictor of survival free of castration resistance in the subgroup of patients without metastasis, HR: 2.12 (95%CI: 1.16–3.85), P = 0.014. The lowest threshold of free testosterone which showed significant differences was 1.7 pg/ml, P = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: Free testosterone at 6 months of LHRH agonist treatment seems to be a better surrogate than total testosterone to predict castration resistance in no metastatic prostate cancer patients. Prostate 77:114–120, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)114-120
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017


  • androgen deprivation therapy
  • castration resistance
  • free testosterone
  • prostate cancer
  • testosterone


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