First recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection: clinical relevance, risk factors, and prognosis

T. Larrainzar-Coghen, D. Rodriguez-Pardo, M. Puig-Asensio, V. Rodríguez, R. Bartolomé, C. Pigrau, N. Fernández-Hidalgo, T. Pumarola, B. Almirante

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28 Citations (Scopus)


© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is challenging. We evaluated the frequency, associated risk factors, and prognosis of first CDAD recurrences. Prospective cohort study of all consecutive cases of primary CDAD diagnosed in a university hospital from January 2006 to June 2013. Recurrent infection was defined as reappearance of symptoms within 8 weeks of the primary diagnosis, provided that CDAD symptoms had previously resolved and a new toxin test was positive. Predictors of a first episode of recurrent CDAD were determined by logistic regression analysis. In total, 502 patients (51.6 % men) with a mean age of 62.3 years (SD 18.5) had CDAD; 379 (76 %) were cured, 61 (12 %) had a first recurrence, 52 (10 %) died within 30 days of the CDAD diagnosis, nine (2 %) required colectomy, and one was lost to follow-up. Among the 61 patients with a first recurrence, 36 (59.3 %) were cured, 15 (23.7 %) had a second recurrence, nine (15.3 %) died, and one (1.7 %) required colectomy. On multivariate analysis, age older than 65 years (OR 2.04; 95 % CI, 1.14-3.68; P < 0.02) and enteral nutrition (OR, 3.62; 95%CI, 1.66-7.87; P < 0.01) were predictors of a first recurrence. A risk score was developed for first CDAD recurrence using the predictive factors and selected biological variables. In our CDAD cohort, 12 % of patients had a first recurrence of this disease, in which the prognosis was less favorable than that of the primary episode, as it heralded a higher risk of additional recurrences. Patient age and enteral nutrition were predictors of a first recurrence.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)371-378
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2016


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