© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ. Objective To examine the 1-year first incidence and prevalence of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), the outcomes on psychopathology and functioning by age of onset and the risk factors of onset of ODD from ages 3 to 9 in children from the Spanish general population. Design Longitudinal with seven follow-ups and double cohort (ODD and non-ODD children). Setting General population of preschool and elementary school children in Barcelona (Spain). Participants On a first phase, the parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire conduct problems scale plus ODD Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth version, symptoms were used to screen for behavioural problems. The second phase sample size contained 622 cases at age 3 and, at age 9, 418 remained in the study. Results The probability of the onset of ODD showed increasing values at ages 4 (R=2.7%) and 5 years (R=4.4%). These values decreased until age 7 (R=1.9%) and increased again until age 9 (R=3.6%). Up to 9 years old, the cumulative risk of new cases of ODD was 21.9%. Early onset was associated with a higher risk of depression comorbidity and later onset with higher functional impairment and symptomatology. Subthreshold ODD, high scores in irritability and headstrong dimensions, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other comorbidity, negative affectivity until age 7, difficulties in inhibit and emotional control, punitive parenting and maternal internalising problems were risk factors of a first episode of ODD during this 7-year period. Conclusions The risk of new cases of ODD in the general population at preschool age and during childhood is high. Preschool age is a target period for preventive interventions. Identified risk factors are objectives for targeted and indicated interventions.
- oppositional defiant disorder
- risk factors