Purpose: This phase I study assessed the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical activity of the first-in-class dual MEK/RAF inhibitor, RO5126766. Experimental Design: Initial dose-escalation was conducted using once daily dosing over 28 consecutive days in 4-week cycles. Further escalation was completed using 2 intermittent dosing schedules [7 days on treatment followed by 7 days off (7on/7off); 4 days on treatment followed by 3 days off (4on/3off)]. Results: Fifty-two patients received RO5126766 at doses of 0.1 to 2.7 mg once daily, 2.7 to 4.0 mg (4 on/3 off), or 2.7 to 5.0 mg (7 on/7 off). The most common DLTs were elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and blurred vision. The MTD for each dosing schedule was 2.25 mg once daily, 4.0mg (4 on/3 off), and 2.7 mg (7 on/7 off). The dose/schedule recommended for phase II (RP2D) investigation was 2.7 mg (4 on/3 off). Frequent adverse events included rash-related disorders (94.2%), elevated CPK (55.8%), and diarrhea (51.9%). Cmax occurred 1 to 2 hours after dosing and mean terminal half-life was approximately 60 hours. Pharmacodynamic changes included reduced ERK phosphorylation, an increase in apoptosis in tumor tissue, and a reduction in fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake after 15 days of dosing. Three partial responses were seen: two in BRAF-mutant melanoma tumors and one in an NRAS-mutant melanoma. Conclusion: This first-in-human study shows that oral RO5126766 has manageable toxicity, a favorable pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile, and encouraging preliminary antitumor activity in this population of heavily pretreated patients, achieving tumor shrinkage in around 40% of patients across all dose levels and all tumor types. ©2012 AACR.