Finding high-redshift strong lenses in DES using convolutional neural networks

C. Jacobs, T. Collett, K. Glazebrook, C. McCarthy, A. K. Qin, T. M.C. Abbott, F. B. Abdalla, J. Annis, S. Avila, K. Bechtol, E. Bertin, D. Brooks, E. Buckley-Geer, D. L. Burke, A. Carnero Rosell, M. Carrasco Kind, J. Carretero, L. N. Da Costa, C. Davis, J. De VicenteS. Desai, H. T. Diehl, P. Doel, T. F. Eifler, B. Flaugher, J. Frieman, J. García-Bellido, E. Gaztanaga, D. W. Gerdes, D. A. Goldstein, D. Gruen, R. A. Gruendl, J. Gschwend, G. Gutierrez, W. G. Hartley, D. L. Hollowood, K. Honscheid, B. Hoyle, D. J. James, K. Kuehn, N. Kuropatkin, O. Lahav, T. S. Li, M. Lima, H. Lin, M. A.G. Maia, P. Martini, C. J. Miller, R. Miquel, B. Nord, A. A. Plazas, E. Sanchez, V. Scarpine, M. Schubnell, S. Serrano, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, M. Smith, M. Soares-Santos, F. Sobreira, E. Suchyta, M. E.C. Swanson, G. Tarle, V. Vikram, A. R. Walker, Y. Zhang, J. Zuntz

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22 Citations (Scopus)


© 2019 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. We search Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 3 imaging data for galaxy-galaxy strong gravitational lenses using convolutional neural networks. We generate 250 000 simulated lenses at redshifts > 0.8 from which we create a data set for training the neural networks with realistic seeing, sky and shot noise. Using the simulations as a guide, we build a catalogue of 1.1 million DES sources with 1.8 < g − i < 5, 0.6 < g − r < 3, r mag > 19, g mag > 20, and i mag > 18.2. We train two ensembles of neural networks on training sets consisting of simulated lenses, simulated non-lenses, and real sources. We use the neural networks to score images of each of the sources in our catalogue with a value from 0 to 1, and select those with scores greater than a chosen threshold for visual inspection, resulting in a candidate set of 7301 galaxies. During visual inspection, we rate 84 as 'probably' or 'definitely' lenses. Four of these are previously known lenses or lens candidates. We inspect a further 9428 candidates with a different score threshold, and identify four new candidates. We present 84 new strong lens candidates, selected after a few hours of visual inspection by astronomers. This catalogue contains a comparable number of high-redshift lenses to that predicted by simulations. Based on simulations, we estimate our sample to contain most discoverable lenses in this imaging and at this redshift range.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5330-5349
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Publication statusPublished - 21 Apr 2019


  • Gravitational lensing: strong
  • Methods: statistical


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