Female genital mutilation/cutting in The Gambia: Long-term health consequences and complications during delivery and for the newborn

Adriana Kaplan, Mary Forbes, Isabelle Bonhoure, Mireia Utzet, Miguel Martín, Malick Manneh, Haruna Ceesay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a harmful traditional practice deeply rooted in 28 Sub-Saharan African countries. Its prevalence in The Gambia is 76.3%. The objective of this study was to gain precise information on the long-term health consequences of FGM/C in The Gambia as well as on its impact on delivery and on the health of the newborns. Methods: Data were collected from 588 female patients examined for antenatal care or delivery in hospitals and health centers of the Western Health Region, The Gambia. The information collected, both through a questionnaire and medical examination, included sociodemographic factors, the presence or not of FGM/C, the types of FGM/C practiced, the long-term health consequences of FGM/C, complications during delivery and for the newborn. Odds ratios, their 95% confidence intervals, and P values were calculated. Results: The prevalence of patients who had undergone FGM/C was 75.6% (type I: 75.6%; type II: 24.4%). Women with type I and II FGM/C had a significantly higher prevalence of long-term health problems (eg, dysmenorrhea, vulvar or vaginal pain), problems related to anomalous healing (eg, fibrosis, keloid, synechia), and sexual dysfunction. Women with FGM/C were also much more likely to suffer complications during delivery (perineal tear, obstructed labor, episiotomy, cesarean, stillbirth) and complications associated with anomalous healing after FGM/C. Similarly, newborns were found to be more likely to suffer complications such as fetal distress and caput of the fetal head. Conclusion: This study shows that FGM/C is associated with a variety of long-term health consequences, that women with FGM/C are four times more likely to suffer complications during delivery, and the newborn is four times more likely to have health complications if the parturient has undergone FGM/C. These results highlight for the first time the magnitude of consequences during delivery and for the newborn, associated with FGM/C in The Gambia. © 2013 Kaplan et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)323-331
JournalInternational Journal of Women's Health
Volume5
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Jun 2013

Keywords

  • Africa
  • Female genital mutilation/cutting
  • Sexual and reproductive health
  • The Gambia

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