Feasibility, tolerability, and outcomes of nebulized liposomal amphotericin B for Aspergillus infection prevention in lung transplantation

Víctor Monforte, Piedad Ussetti, Joan Gavaldà, Carles Bravo, Rosalia Laporta, Oscar Len, Cristina López García-Gallo, Lluís Tenorio, Joan Solé, Antonio Román

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    Background: Nebulized amphotericin B deoxycholate (n-ABD) is used to prevent Aspergillus infection in lung transplantation. Nebulized liposomal amphotericin B (n-LAB) is another option; however, no clinical data are available on the results of n-LAB for this purpose. Methods: In an observational study performed in 2 centers to assess the feasibility, tolerability, and outcomes of n-LAB prophylaxis, 104 consecutive patients undergoing prophylaxis with n-LAB were compared with 49 historical controls who received n-ABD. Patient follow-up lasted 12 months. The n-LAB prophylaxis regimen was 25 mg thrice weekly starting on the first post-operative day and continuing to 60 days, 25 mg once weekly from 60 to 180 days, and the same dose once every 2 weeks thereafter. Results: Aspergillus infection developed in 8 of 104 patients (7.7%) with n-LAB prophylaxis (5 colonization, 1 simple tracheobronchitis, 1 ulcerative tracheobronchitis, and 1 invasive pulmonary infection). Ulcerative tracheobronchitis and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis were regarded as invasive disease; hence, the rate of invasive disease was 1.9% (2 patients). The control group had similar rates of Aspergillus infection (10.2%; p = 0.6) and invasive disease (4.1%; p = 0.43). In 3 patients (2.9%), n-LAB was withdrawn due to bronchospasm in 2 and nausea in 1. In the control group, prophylaxis was stopped in 2 patients (4.1%) because of bronchospasm (p = 0.7). Conclusions: At the dose and frequency described, n-LAB seems effective, safe, and convenient for the prevention of Aspergillus infection in lung transplant patients. © 2010 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)523-530
    JournalJournal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2010


    • amphotericin B
    • aspergillus infection
    • aspergillus supp
    • fungal prophylaxis
    • lung transplantation
    • nebulized prophylaxis
    • transplantation infection


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