Murine models of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection are essential tools in drug discovery. Here we describe a fast standardized 9-day acute assay intended to measure the efficacy of drugs against M. tuberculosis growing in the lungs of immunocompetent mice. This assay is highly reproducible, allows good throughput, and was validated for drug lead optimization using isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, linezolid, and moxifloxacin. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.