© 2014 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Human mesenchymal stromal cells, whether from the bone marrow or adipose tissue (hASCs), are promising cell therapy agents. However, generation of abundant cells for therapy remains to be a challenge, due to the need of lengthy expansion and the risk of accumulating genomic defects during the process. We show that hASCs can be easily induced to a reversible fast-proliferating phenotype (FP-ASCs) that allows rapid generation of a clinically useful quantity of cells in <2 weeks of culture. Expanded FP-ASCs retain their finite expansion capacity and pluripotent properties. Despite the high proliferation rate, FP-ASCs show genomic stability by array-comparative genomic hybridization, and did not generate tumors when implanted for a long time in an SCID mouse model. Comparative analysis of gene expression patterns revealed a set of genes that can be used to characterize FP-ASCs and distinguish them from hASCs. As potential candidate therapeutic agents, FP-ASCs displayed high vasculogenic capacity in Matrigel assays. Moreover, application of hASCs and FP-ASCs in a fibrin scaffold over a myocardium infarct model in SCID mice showed that both cell types can differentiate to endothelial and myocardium lineages, although FP-ASCs were more potent angiogenesis inducers than hASCs, at promoting myocardium revascularization.