Here a novel electrochemical method for the rapid detection of anti-HIV antibodies in serum is presented. The novelty lies in the combination of allosteric enzymes and coulometry to yield a fast, simple and reliable HIV diagnostic method. We have used a previously developed β-galactosidase enzyme that is efficiently activated by anti-HIV antibodies directed against a major B-cell epitope of the gp41 glycoprotein. When these antibodies bind the enzyme, the 3D conformation changes positively affecting the performance of the active site and, consequently, the enzyme activity is stimulated. Using 4-aminophenyl β-d-galactopyranoside (PAPG) as substrate yields p-aminophenol (PAP), which is reversibly oxidised at a very mild potential, ca. 0.37 V vs. Ag/AgCl over a range of electrode materials within the working pH range of β-galactosidase. In the present case, photolithographically produced microelectrode arrays resulted in a detection limit of 4 μM for 4-aminophenol (PAP). The presence of anti-HIV antibodies results in enzyme activity increases above 50% which, combined with the sensitivity and response time afforded by the microelectrode arrays, allowed for the diagnosis of HIV in sera samples within an hour. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|Journal||Analytica Chimica Acta|
|Publication status||Published - 8 May 2009|
- Allosteric enzymes
- Amperometry of 4-aminophenol
- Anti-HIV antibodies
- Disk microelectrode arrays