Organic nanostructures are new comers to the fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology. In recent years novel methods for controlling the growth and uniformity of one-dimensional (1D) organic nanostructures (nanowires and nanotubes) have been developing. The use of hard templates as molds for the formation of organic nanowires or nanotubes seems to be a reliable and convenient method. In this review we will discuss the use of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates as the inorganic hard template of choice. We will briefly survey advances in the fabrication of 1D polymer nanostructures using AAO templates, while the bulk of the review will focus on the synthesis of small molecule nanowires, nanotubes, and nanorods. We will also discuss unique properties of some highly crystalline small molecule nanorods fabricated using AAO templates.