The extraction of nitric acid and phosphoric acid by tributyl phosphate (TBP), from solutions containing acid mixture and in the presence of nitrate salts, has been studied. The effect of the temperature on acid extraction has been also investigated. It is found that TBP extracts nitric acid preferentially to phosphoric acid, especially in the presence of nitrate salts. The coextraction of nitric acid suppresses the extraction of phosphoric acid. These results were interpreted in terms of common ion effect and variation of the activity coefficients variation in both phases. The simultaneous effects of the salts and acids on the extraction of both acids is also studied. Some tests were carried out, using process solution, to evaluate the extraction of acids. Both batch experiments and continuous tests (using mixer settler) were performed. Some flowsheets were tested in order to improve the extractivity and the selectivity of phosphoric acid. The results show the limitation of TBP for the extraction of phosphoric acid. TBP can be used to selectively extract nitric acid. © 1989, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. All rights reserved.