Extra-Virgin Olive Oil and Its Minor Compounds Influence Apoptosis in Experimental Mammary Tumors and Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines

Maite Garcia-Guasch, Mireia Medrano, Irmgard Costa, Elena Vela, Marta Grau, Eduard Escrich, Raquel Moral*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women worldwide. Modifiable fac-tors such as nutrition have a role in its etiology. In experimental tumors, we have observed the differential influence of high-fat diets in metabolic pathways, suggesting a different balance in pro-liferation/apoptosis. In this work, we analyzed the effects of a diet high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a diet high in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) on the histopathological features and different cell death pathways in the dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced breast cancer model. The diet high in n-6 PUFA had a stimulating effect on the morphological aggressiveness of tumors and their proliferation, while no significant differences were found in groups fed the EVOO-enriched diet in comparison to a low-fat control group. The high-EVOO diet induced modifications in pro-teins involved in several cell death pathways. In vitro analysis in different human breast cancer cell lines showed an effect of EVOO minor compounds (especially hydroxytyrosol), but not of fatty ac-ids, decreasing viability while increasing apoptosis. The results suggest an effect of dietary lipids on tumor molecular contexts that result in the modulation of different pathways, highlighting the importance of apoptosis in the interplay of survival processes and how dietary habits may have an impact on breast cancer risk.

Original languageEnglish
Article number905
JournalCancers
Volume14
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2022

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Breast cancer
  • Cell death
  • Experimental mammary tumors
  • High-fat diets
  • Hydroxytyrosol
  • Luteolin
  • Oleuropein
  • Olive oil

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