© 2019 American Society for Investigative Pathology Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are secreted proteins that belong to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. In the adult brain, they modulate neurogenesis, favor astrogliogenesis, and inhibit oligodendrogenesis. Because BMPs may be involved in the failure of remyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS), we characterized the expression of BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-5, and BMP-7; BMP type II receptor (BMPRII); and phosphorylated SMAD (pSMAD) 1/5/8 in lesions of MS and other demyelinating diseases. A total of 42 MS lesions, 12 acute ischemic lesions, 8 progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy lesions, and 10 central nervous system areas from four nonneuropathological patients were included. Lesions were histologically classified according to the inflammatory activity. The expression of BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-7, BMPRII, and pSMAD1/5/8 was quantified by immunostaining, and colocalization studies were performed. In MS lesions, astrocytes, microglia/macrophages, and neurons expressed BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-5, and BMP-7; BMPRII; and pSMAD1/5/8. Oligodendrocytes expressed BMP-2 and BMP-7 and pSMAD1/5/8. The percentage of cells that expressed BMPs, BMPRII, and pSMAD1/5/8 correlated with the inflammatory activity of MS lesions, and changes in the percentage of positive cells were more relevant in MS than in other white matter–damaging diseases. These data indicate that BMPs are increased in active MS lesions, suggesting a possible role in MS pathogenesis.