Exploring Additive, Synergistic or Antagonistic Effects of Natural Plant Extracts on In Vitro Beef Feedlot-Type Rumen Microbial Fermentation Conditions

Ignacio Fandiño, Gonzalo Fernandez-Turren, Alfred Ferret, Diego Moya, Lorena Castillejos, Sergio Calsamiglia*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Simple Summary Essential oils (EO) can be used as natural alternatives to in-feed antibiotics. Most EO products in the market are based on a combination of EO or their active molecules but prove of additivity or synergy is lacking. The effect of six EO (tea tree oil-TeTr, oregano oil-Ore, clove bud oil-Clo, thyme oil-Thy, rosemary oil-Ros and sage oil-Sag) and different mixes on in vitro microbial fermentation profile of a feedlot beef cattle type fermentation were evaluated for their additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects. Mixing TeTr with Thy, Ore or Thy + Ore modified rumen microbial fermentation profile, but the size of the effect was similar to that obtained with TeTr alone, suggesting that the effects were not additive. When Thy, Ore or Thy + Ore were mixed with Clo, most effects on rumen fermentation profile disappeared even when TeTr was part of the mix, suggesting an antagonistic interaction of Clo with Thy and Ore. Results do not support the hypothesis of additivity among the EO tested, and antagonistic effects may occur among some of them, at least in a low pH, beef-type fermentation conditions.

Abstract Six Essential oils (EO) (tea tree oil-TeTr, oregano oil-Ore, clove bud oil-Clo, thyme oil-Thy, rosemary oil-Ros, and sage oil-Sag) in Experiment 1; and different combinations of selected oils in Experiment 2, were evaluate at four doses in an in vitro microbial fermentation system using ruminal fluid from beef cattle fed a 10:90 straw: Concentrate diet. In Experiment 1, TeTr, Ore, Clo and Thy improved rumen fermentation profile in a direction consistent with better feed utilization. In Experiment 2, TeTr mixed with Thy, Ore, Thy + Ore or Clo at 200 and 400 mg/L increased the molar proportion of propionate and decreased that of acetate, and the acetate to propionate ratio. However, the size of the effect was similar to that obtained with TeTr alone, suggesting that effects were not additive. When Thy, Ore or Thy + Ore where mixed with Clo, most effects on rumen fermentation profile disappeared, suggesting an antagonistic interaction of Clo with Thy and Ore. Results do not support the hypothesis of additivity among the EO tested, and antagonistic effects of Clo mixed with Thy or Ore were demonstrated at least in a low pH, beef-type fermentation conditions.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number173
Number of pages11
JournalAnimals
Volume10
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jan 2020

Keywords

  • Essential oils
  • Rumen microbial fermentation
  • Synergies

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