Exchange bias in nanostructures

Josep Nogués, J. Sort, V. Langlais, V. Skumryev, S. Suriñach, J. S. Muñoz, M. D. Baró

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

1450 Citations (Scopus)


The phenomenology of exchange bias and related effects in nanostructures is reviewed. The types of systems discussed include: lithographically fabricated ferromagnetic (FM)-antiferromagnetic (AFM) nanostructures, chemically surface modified FM particles, FM particles embedded in an AFM matrix, controlled core-shell particles, nanoparticles with surface effects and coupled AFM-AFM systems. The main applications of exchange biased nanostructures are summarized. Finally, the implications of the nanometer dimensions on some of the existing exchange bias theories are briefly discussed. © 2005 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)65-117
JournalPhysics Reports
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2005


  • Antiferromagnetic materials
  • Exchange bias
  • Magnetic domains
  • Magnetic nanostructures


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