Exchange bias

J. Nogués, Ivan K. Schuller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

4112 Citations (Scopus)


We review the phenomenology of exchange bias and related effects, with emphasis on layered antiferromagnetic (AFM)-ferromagnetic (FM) structures. A compilation of materials exhibiting exchange bias and some of the techniques used to study them is given. Some of the applications of exchange bias are discussed. The leading theoretical models are summarized. Finally some of the factors controlling exchange bias as well as some of the unsolved issues associated with exchange bias are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)203-232
JournalJournal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 1999


  • 75.30.Gw
  • 75.50.Rr
  • 75.70.-i
  • 75.70.Cn
  • Antiferromagnetism
  • Exchange bias
  • Ferromagnetism
  • Interfaces


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