We review the phenomenology of exchange bias and related effects, with emphasis on layered antiferromagnetic (AFM)-ferromagnetic (FM) structures. A compilation of materials exhibiting exchange bias and some of the techniques used to study them is given. Some of the applications of exchange bias are discussed. The leading theoretical models are summarized. Finally some of the factors controlling exchange bias as well as some of the unsolved issues associated with exchange bias are discussed.
- Exchange bias