Excess hospitalizations and mortality associated with seasonal influenza in Spain, 2008-2018

Tomàs Pumarola Suñé, J. Díez-Domingo, F. Martinón-Torres, E. Redondo Margüello, R. Ortiz de Lejarazu Leonardo, M. Carmo, G. Bizouard, G. Drago, J. L. López-Belmonte, H. Bricout, C. de Courville, A. Gil-de-Miguel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Influenza may trigger complications, particularly in at-risk groups, potentially leading to hospitalization or death. However, due to lack of routine testing, influenza cases are infrequently coded with influenza-specific diagnosis. Statistical models using influenza activity as an explanatory variable can be used to estimate annual hospitalizations and deaths associated with influenza. Our study aimed to estimate the clinical and economic burden of severe influenza in Spain, considering such models. The study comprised ten epidemic seasons (2008/2009-2017/2018) and used two approaches: (i) a direct method of estimating the seasonal influenza hospitalization, based on the number of National Health Service hospitalizations with influenza-specific International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes (ICD-9: 487-488; ICD-10: J09-J11), as primary or secondary diagnosis; (ii) an indirect method of estimating excess hospitalizations and deaths using broader groups of ICD codes in time-series models, computed for six age groups and four groups of diagnoses: pneumonia or influenza (ICD-9: 480-488, 517.1; ICD-10: J09-J18), respiratory (ICD-9: 460-519; ICD-10: J00-J99), respiratory or cardiovascular (C&R, ICD-9: 390-459, 460-519; ICD-10: I00-I99, J00-J99), and all-cause. Means, excluding the H1N1pdm09 pandemic (2009/2010), are reported in this study. The mean number of hospitalizations with a diagnosis of influenza per season was 13,063, corresponding to 28.1 cases per 100,000 people. The mean direct annual cost of these hospitalizations was €45.7 million, of which 65.7% was generated by patients with comorbidities. Mean annual influenza-associated C&R hospitalizations were estimated at 34,894 (min: 16,546; max: 52,861), corresponding to 75.0 cases per 100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 63.3-86.3) for all ages and 335.3 (95% CI: 293.2-377.5) in patients aged ≥ 65 years. We estimate 3.8 influenza-associated excess C&R hospitalizations for each hospitalization coded with an influenza-specific diagnosis in patients aged ≥ 65 years. The mean direct annual cost of the estimated excess C&R hospitalizations was €142.9 million for all ages and €115.9 million for patients aged ≥ 65 years. Mean annual influenza-associated all-cause mortality per 100,000 people was estimated at 27.7 for all ages. Results suggest a relevant under-detected burden of influenza mostly in the elderly population, but not neglectable in younger people. The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12879-023-08015-3.
Original languageEnglish
Article number86
Number of pages16
JournalBMC Infectious Diseases
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 7 Feb 2023


  • Burden
  • Cardiovascular
  • Excess
  • Hospitalization
  • Influenza
  • Mortality
  • Respiratory
  • Spain


Dive into the research topics of 'Excess hospitalizations and mortality associated with seasonal influenza in Spain, 2008-2018'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this