The concentration of evolutionary breakpoints in primate karyotypes in some particular regions or chromosome bands suggests that these chromosome regions are more prone to breakage. This is the first extensive comparative study which investigates a possible relationship of two genetic markers (intrachromosomal telomeric sequences [TTAGGG]n, [ITSs] and fragile sites [FSs]), which are implicated in the evolutionary process as well as in chromosome rearrangements. For this purpose, we have analyzed: (a) the cytogenetic expression of aphidicolin-induced FSs in Cebus apella and Cebus nigrivittatus (F. Cebidae, Platyrrhini) and Mandrillus sphinx (F. Cercopithecidae, Catarrhini), and (b) the intrachromosomal position of telomeric-like sequences by FISH with a synthetic (TTAGGG)n probe in C. apella chromosomes. The multinomial FSM statistical model allowed us to determinate 53 FSs in C. apella, 16 FSs in C. nigrivittatus and 50 FSs in M. sphinx. As expected, all telomeres hybridized with the probe, and 55 intrachromosomal loci were also detected in the Cebus apella karyotype. The χ2 test indicates that the coincidence of the location of Cebus and Mandrillus FSs with the location of human FSs is significant (P < 0.005). Based on a comparative cytogenetic study among different primate species we have identified (or described) the chromosome bands in the karyotypes of Papionini and Cebus species implicated in evolutionary reorganizations. More than 80% of these evolutionary breakpoints are located in chromosome bands that express FSs and/or contain ITSs. Copyright © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.